Breast milk is made especially for human babies. Your milk contains just the right balance of nutrients, plus it is the easiest food for your baby to digest and it protects against illness.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) strongly recommends exclusive breastfeeding for at least 6 months. Exclusive breastfeeding means that your baby consumes only breast milk for 6 months. Babies who are exclusively breastfed develops better immune system.
Getting Started with Breastfeeding
Your breast milk and how you breastfeed will change as your baby grows and develops. A new-born’s feeding routine may be different than that of a breastfeeding 6 month old. As the baby grows, the nutrients in your milk adapt to your growing baby’s needs. The anti-infective properties also increase if you or your baby is exposed to some new bacteria or virus. Here’s how to get started.
The first few weeks of breastfeeding are a learning period for both you and your baby. It takes time for you to learn to work as a coordinated team. Be patient as you recover from your delivery, develop a daily routine and become comfortable with breastfeeding. Keep track of feedings and wet diapers. This can help your child’s doctor and your lactation professional assess how your feedings are going and even you get know whether your baby is getting enough.
Most full-term, healthy babies are ready and eager to begin breastfeeding within the first half hour to one hour after birth. This first hour is an important time for babies to nurse and be with their mothers. The WHO recommends that babies be placed skin-to-skin with their mother immediately after birth or as soon as both the mother and baby can do it. Skin-to-skin means placing a naked baby on a mother’s bare chest. This keeps the baby warm, helps keep the baby’s blood sugar up and helps the baby breastfeed for the first time. It is recommended that babies be kept skin-to-skin with their mother at least 1 hour or longer if the baby hasn’t breastfed yet.
After these first few hours of being awake, babies will often act sleepy or drowsy. Some babies are more interested in sleeping than eating on their birthdays. You can expect to change only a couple diapers during the first 24 hours.
Days 2 to 4
Although he or she may need practice with latching on and sucking, by the second day, your baby should begin to wake and show readiness for feedings every 1.5 to 3 hours for a total of 8 to 12 feedings over 24 hours. These frequent feedings provide your baby with antibody-rich first milk called colostrum and cue your breasts to make more milk. Allow your baby to nurse on one breast until finished. You can then change and burp your baby before you offer the other breast. If the baby is not interested in breastfeeding, start with the second breast at the next feeding.
As with the first day, you will likely change only a few wet and dirty diapers on baby’s second and third days. Don’t be surprised if your baby loses weight during the first couple of days. The number of diaper changes and baby’s weight will increase when your milk comes in.
It is normal to experience uterine cramping during the first few days of breastfeeding. This is a positive sign that the baby’s sucking has triggered a milk let-down. It also means your uterus is contracting, which helps lessen bleeding. Some mothers briefly feel a tingling, “pins and needles” or flushing of warmth or coolness through the breasts with milk let-down. Others don’t notice anything different, except the rhythm of the baby’s sucking.
Because your baby still is learning, your nipples may be tender when he or she latches on or during a feeding. Other factors also may contribute to this tenderness, but usually it is mild and disappears by the end of the first week. If tenderness continues, or gets worse or if your nipples are cracked, tell your lactation professional.
Days 3 to 5
You will have significantly more breast milk 3 or 4 days after birth. When the amount of milk increases, your milk is said to have “come in.” Since your baby is drinking more at each feeding, he or she may drift off after a feeding and act more satisfied. Within 12 to 24 hours, you should be changing many more wet and dirty diapers and your baby’s stools should be changing. Stools will change from meconium, the baby’s first bowel movements, which are sticky and dark, to a mustard-yellow, loose and seedy stool.
Weight gain should also pick up within 24 hours of this increase in milk production. Your baby will begin to gain at least 15 gm a day. You may notice that your breasts feel fuller, heavier or warmer when your milk comes in. The most important thing to do when your milk first comes in is to feed your baby frequently, emptying your breasts often and completely.
Your breasts may become overfilled with milk, or engorged, causing them to be swollen and painful. Your baby may have trouble latching on if your breasts are engorged. If this happens:
Use a moist, comfortably warm compress to breast for a few minutes before nursing or pumping, may help the milk flow. Note: applying hot compresses is not recommended.
Express some milk. Squeeze a small amount out of your breasts by hand and then let baby latch on.
Breastfeed or express milk by hand or breast pump frequently, every 1 to 2 hours. Your breasts should feel noticeably softer after breastfeeding or pumping.
Put a cold pack, a filled with ice or a bag of frozen vegetables covered in a thin towel on your breasts. Keep it on your breasts for 15 to 20 minutes after nursing or pumping.
Days 5 to 28
Your baby will become more proficient at breastfeeding as the first month progresses. Expect to feed your baby about 8 to 12 times in 24 hours. Let your baby tell you when he or she is finished eating. When the baby self-detaches from the nipple, you can offer the other breast. Some babies feed better between breasts if you change their diapers and burp them. Usually, a baby will breastfeed for a shorter period at the second breast and sometimes he or she may not want to feed on the second breast at all. Simply offer the second breast first at the next feeding.
Your baby should continue to:
- Soak 6 or more diapers a day with clear or pale yellow urine.
- Pass 3 or more loose, seedy or curd-like yellow stools.
- Begin to gain weight.
- Your baby probably will go through several two to four day “growth spurt” periods when he or she seems to want to eat almost around the clock. Babies commonly experience a growth spurt between 2 to 3 weeks, 4 to 6 weeks and again at about 3 months. It is important to let a baby feed more often during these spurts. Within a few days, your baby will have returned to a more typical pattern.
Let your baby set the pace for breastfeeding. Pay attention to his or her feeding cues. Here are some examples of infant feeding cues:
Turning the head toward the breast
- Licking the lips
- Smacking the lips
- Being awake
- Crying (this is a late sign of hunger)
- The number of feedings each baby needs and the length of time each feeding lasts will vary from baby to baby. Trying to force a breastfed baby to wait longer between feedings or force them to a feeding schedule can result in poor weight gain.